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British, American and Russian Polity

 

Е.Ю.СТРИГАНКОВА, О.Н.ПЕЧЕРСКАЯ, М.М.МОКЕЕВ

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

AMERICAN AND RUSSIAN

POLITY

 

 

 

 

Учебное пособие

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Издательский центр «Наука»

, 2009

Центр межкультурной управленческой коммуникации ПАГС

 

УДК

ББК

С

.

 

ISBN

Великобритании, Соединённых Штатов Америки и России.

публичной речи и страноведческих знаний, основанных на компаративном анализе изученного материала.

бакалавриата, магистратуры и аспирантуры.

УДК

ББК

Рекомендует к печати

кафедра английского языка ПАГС

 

Рецензенты:

О.Л.Петрова, кандидат филологических наук, доцент

Н.Ф.Потапова, кандидат филологических наук, доцент

 

ISBN

к.ф.н.Стриганкова Е.Ю.

к.ю.н.Мокеев М.М.

Печерская О.Н.

 

ПАГС

Издательский центр

«Наука»

 

CONTENTS

 

CONTENTS

Preface

POLITY

ystem

onarchy

arties

ranch

ranch

ranch

overnment

POLITY

ystem

Constitution

arties

ranch

ranch

ranch

t

PART III. THE RF POLITY

Political System

Constitution

arties

residency

elf-government

Bibliography

100

 

 

PREFACE

ной управленческой коммуникации ПАГС.

содержит тексты информационного характера, знакомящие читателя с основными принципами государственного устройства Великобритании, США и России, а также с механизмами регулирования их внешней и внутренней политики.

.

основанных на компаративном анализе изученного материала.

аспирантуры.

I

POLITY

 

POLITICAL SYSTEM

 

Read the text and say what you have learned about British state system.

SYSTEM OF GREAT BRITAIN

chy is founded is strictly observed. The now reigning monarch, Queen Elizabeth II is a descendant of the Saxon King Egbert.

, and a number of constitutional acts, separate laws and agreements.

legislature, head of the judiciary, the commander-in-chief of all the armed forces of the Crown and the ‘supreme governor’ of the established Church of England. While that sounds like a lot of responsibility, the real power of the monarchy has been steadily reduced over the years to the point where the Queen is uninvolved in the day-to-day operation of the government. She is impartial and acts only on the advice of her ministers. The monarch reigns with the support of Parliament and the elected Government, and takes no part in the decision-making process.

branch.

d.

the Lord Chancellor and he sits on a special seat called the Woolsack.

encies each. Members of the House of Commons are elected for five years.

, after which it becomes a law.

The main function of the executive branch of the government is to administer the laws (to see that the laws are carried out, actually to rule the country).

.

 

 

 

 

______________________________________________

I. Match the phrases in English with their Russian equivalents. Find the sentences with them in the text and read them out.

 

enforceable

ief of the armed forces

head of the judiciary

the House of Lords

the Church of England

life peerages

the House of Commons

Lord Chancellor

Royal Assent

rank

the Supreme Court of Judicature

the ‘supreme governor’

пожизненное пэрство, звание пэра

 

 

. Give extensive answers.

What does a constitutional monarchy mean?

at present time?

List the powers of the British Queen.

?

?

?

of power?

?

?

?

 

. Read the sentences and say if they are true or false. Correct the false ones:

British constitutional monarchy means that the monarch is the Head of State.

at present time.

head of the executive branch of the government.

The British constitution is set out in a single document.

.

d.

Bills are proposed and discussed in the House of Lords, then sent to the House of Commons.

ministers for the Cabinet.

.

 

V. Talking point.

and give your arguments for and against.

.

The real power of the monarchy has been steadily reduced over the years.

UNIT II. THE MONARCHY

 

_

what role the British Queen plays in the life of the country.

THE MONARCHY

Queen is an important symbol of national unity. Her complete official royal title is ‘Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and of Her other Realms and Territories Queen, Head of the Commonwealth, Defender of the Faith’, but she is usually referred to as Her Royal Highness or Queen Elizabeth.

The Queen’s constitutional role, however, is mainly symbolic. It is the Queen who formally opens Parliament every autumn, but the speech she makes from the throne, giving details of the government’s future plans, is written for her by politicians. Nothing becomes British law without the monarch’s signature, but the Queen would never refuse to sign a bill which has been passed by Parliament. It is the Queen who officially appoints the Prime Minister, but traditionally she always asks the leader of the party with a majority in the House of Commons.

and many other countries and are closely involved in the work of many charities.

… As head of the Commonwealth, she meets and entertains prime ministers of the member states.

in visits to most parts of the world.

 

__

I. Match the phrases in English with their Russian equivalents. Find the sentences with them in the text and read them out.

 

 

the work of many charities

true power lies in the hands of

eighteenth-century uniforms

came to the throne

head of the Commonwealth

the State Opening of Parliament

never refuse to sign a bill

n great occasions

the monarch’s signature

Highness

pays for her expenses

the upkeep of several palaces

работа многочисленных благотворительных организаций

 

 

. Give extensive answers.

What is the complete official royal title of the Queen Elizabeth II?

mainly symbolic?

?

What is the most important function of the Queen?

formed?

What does the Commonwealth mean?

What countries does the Commonwealth include?

Who pays for the Queen’s expenses?

When did Elizabeth II come to the throne?

 

.

The British Parliament is an important symbol of national unity.

True power lies in the hands of the Queen.

nly symbolic.

.

.

The Queen’s image appears on stamps, notes and the flag.

.

.

Commonwealth.

.

 

V. Talking point.

ive your reasons for and against.

Some British consider there are many arguments against the monarchy: it is anachronistic, non-democratic, too expensive and too closely associated with aristocratic privilege and establishment thinking. It is also suggested that, if the monarch’s functions today are merely ceremonial and lack power, the office should be abolished and replaced by a cheaper figurehead presidency.

and overseas. The monarchy is also attractive to many people. They think that the Royal Family is good for tourism.

II. POLITICAL PARTIES

 

_________________________________________________________

.

POLITICAL PARTIES

an alliance with the Liberal Party in 1988.

Because of the electoral method in use, only two major parties obtain seats in the House of Commons.

ety. It is against state control of industry.

The Tories are a mixture of the rich and privileged — the monopolists and is often called a party of business directors.

class voters and in 1988 made an alliance with Social Democrats and the party or Liberal Democrats was formed.

though it is now not as left-wing as it used to be. It has many supporters, especially among working-class and middle-class people.

 

____________________________

Match the phrases in English with their Russian equivalents. Find the sentences with them in the text and read them out.

 

 

to run the party

a Scottish Preacher

y

development of Trade Unionism

electoral method in use

Whigs

an Irish highwayman

elected to the House of Commons

y

y

the Labour Party

the Party of Liberal Democrats

the Social Democratic Party

the Tory Party

в Палату Общин

 

. Give extensive answers.

?

?

?

?

What does “tory” mean?

?

?

What does “whig” mean?

What classes did the Liberal Party represent?

?

How can you explain the expressions “right-wing” and “left-wing”?

 

r false. Correct the false ones.

.

.

may obtain seats in the House of Commons.

order of society.

is also called the Tory Party.

“Whigs” is a party of those who believe in private enterprise.

 

V. Talking point.

The political party system is essential to the working of the constitution. Although the parties are not registered or formally recognized in law, most candidates for election belong to one of the main parties. Since 1945 eight general elections have been won by the Conservative Party and six by the Labour Party. A number of smaller parties have national and local organizations outside Parliament, and are also represented in local government.

.

 

LEGISLATIVE BRANCH

 

_

the structure of the British Parliament.

BRITISH PARLIAMENT

, is made up of the House of Commons, the House of Lords and the Queen in her constitutional role.

Parliament and the monarch have different roles in the government of the country, and they only meet together on symbolic occasions such as the coronation of a new monarch or the opening of Parliament. In reality, the House of Commons is the only one of the three which has true power. It is here that new bills are introduced and debated. If the majority of the members are in favour of a bill it goes to the House of Lords to be debated and finally to the monarch to be signed. Only then it becomes law. The House of Commons is the most powerful and decides national policy, but the House of Lords can ask the House of Commons to rewrite certain parts of a bill before it becomes a new law.

Although a bill must be supported by all three bodies, the House of Lords only has limited powers, and the monarch has not refused to sign one since the modern political system began over 200 years ago.

). The House of Commons is presided over by the Speaker, a member acceptable to the whole House. MPs sit on two sides of the hall, one side for the governing party and the other for the opposition. The first two rows of seats are occupied by the leading members of both parties (called ‘front-benchers’), the back benches belong to the rank-and-file MPs (‘back-benchers’). MPs are paid for their parliamentary work and have to attend the sittings. MPs have to catch the Speaker’s eye when they want to speak, then they rise from where they have been sitting to address the House and must do so without either reading a prepared speech or consulting notes.

A proposed law, a bill, has to go through three stages in order to become an Act of Parliament. These are called readings. The first reading is a formality and is simply the publication of the proposal. The second reading involves debate on the principles of the bill, its examination by a parliamentary committee, and the third reading — a report stage, when the work of the committee is reported on to the House. If the majority of MPs vote for the bill, it is sent to the House of Lords for discussion. When the Lords agree, the bill is taken to the Queen for Royal assent. All bills must pass through both houses before being sent for signature by the Queen, when they become Acts of Parliament and the Law of the Land.

.

would like to abolish it.

cabinet posts.

today are as follows:

• to pass laws;

• to vote on financial bills so that the government could carry on its work;

• to discuss the government’s administrative policies — foreign affairs, the state of agriculture, educational problems, etc.;

• to debate important political issues of the day.

By custom, Parliament is also informed before the ratification of all important international treaties and agreements. The making of treaties is, however, a royal prerogative exercised on the advice of the government and is not subject to parliamentary approval.

is divided into periods, called sessions. Each usually lasts for one year — normally beginning and ending most often in October or November. Each session is ended by prorogation. Parliament then ‘stands prorogued’, until the new session begins. Prorogation terminates nearly all parliamentary business: in particular, bills which have not been passed by the end of the session are lost, and every new session begins with a clean slate.

adjourned.

 

____________________________

. Match the phrases in English with their Russian equivalents. Find the sentences with them in the text and read them out.

 

 

terminates nearly all parliamentary business

slate

to abolish non-elected second chamber

affairs

‘s legislature

are in favour of a bill

prorogation

be supported by all three bodies

constituency

is presided over by the Speaker

adjourned

Parliament

)

 

. Give extensive answers.

’s legislature made of?

Which of the three constituent parts of it has the true power?

How many members are there in the House of Commons?

What MPs are called “front-benchers” and “back-benchers”?

Who are “life peers”?

Whom is the House of Lords presided over?

of making laws?

?

Who approves bills before they become Acts of Parliament?

What are the main functions of British Parliament today?

What do you know about the life of the British Parliament?

 

.

country.

who has true power.

ion of the Queen is ceremonial.

The House of Commons is the most powerful and decides national policy.

Members of the House of Lords are not elected.

New bills are introduced and debated in the House of Lords.

adings in the House of Commons.

the House of Lords debate a bill after it has been passed by the House of Commons.

Although a bill must be supported by all three bodies, the House of Commons has limited powers.

The main function of the British Parliament is to interpret laws.

 

.

is the only non-elected second chamber in the parliament in the world and should be abolished.

The making of treaties is a royal prerogative and is not a subject to parliamentary approval.

Bills which have not been passed by the end of Parliament session are lost, and new session begins with a clean slate.

 

Reading_________________________________________________________

Read the text and say if the British electoral system is complicated or not.

Parliamentary Elections

The minimum voting age is 18, and the voting is taken by secret ballot.

 

____________________________

I. Match the phrases in English with their Russian equivalents. Find the sentences with them in the text and read them out.

 

 

leader of the opposition

a recognized post

a particular area of the government

ballot

is decided on a simple majority

general election

election

решается простым большинством голосов

 

. Give extensive answers.

Is it fixed or not?

Who and why may call a by-election?

?

last?

What candidate wins at the elections?

Which party forms the Government?

How is the Cabinet of Prime Minister formed?

What is each minister in the Cabinet responsible for?

What does the second largest party become?

 

.

years.

.

The minimum voting age is 21.

oting is not taken by secret ballot.

The election campaign lasts about three months.

The candidate with the most votes wins.

m depends on political parties.

.

ticular area of the government.

 

.

Many people think that British electoral system is unfair.

and call for a general election at any time during the term.

Leader of the opposition is a recognized post in the House of Commons.

V. EXECUTIVE BRANCH

 

_____________________________

executive branch of power in Great Britain.

GOVERNMENT

) the Cabinet and other ministers of the Crown who are responsible for directing national policy; 2) government departments, who are responsible for administration at the national level; 3) local authorities who administer and control many services at the local level; and 4) statutory boards, who are responsible for the operation of particular nationalized industries or public services.

Her Majesty’s Government is the body of ministers charged with the administration of national affairs. Framing the foreign and home policies is one of the main functions of the Government. In recent years the scope of Governmental functions has become wider. Now it is also responsible for supervising finance, different social services, etc.

appointed by the Sovereign is the chairman of the Cabinet (a committee of leading Ministers). It is he who appoints its members, summons it and can dissolve it. All affairs of the state are conducted in the name of the Queen (King), but really the PM is responsible for every matter submitted to Parliament. He is a virtual ruler of the country. Informing the Sovereign of the general business of the Government is what the PM does as well. He also presides over the meetings of the Cabinet, which are always secret.

does not have a President).

. Agencies are headed by chief executives responsible for their performance and who enjoy considerable freedom on financial, pay and personnel matters.

Who usually constitutes the Cabinet are the Prime Minister, the Chancellor of the Exchequer (who is in charge of money and finance), the Foreign Secretary, the Lord Chancellor, the Secretary of War, the Secretary of State for the Home Department, the Secretary of State for Education and Science, etc.

 

____________________________

Match the phrases in English with their Russian equivalents. Find the sentences with them in the text and read them out.

 

 

Exchequer

finance

framing the foreign and home policies

administration of national affairs

government departments

responsible for their own departments

challenge government policies

statutory boards

takes policy decisions

Parliament

appointed by the Sovereign

directing national policy

local authorities

planning and housing

civil servants

summon and dissolve the Cabinet

a virtual ruler of the country

предложенное на рассмотрение в Парламент

 

. Give extensive answers.

responsible for?

What are the responsibilities of Her Majesty’s Government?

Who usually constitutes the Cabinet?

What bodies carry out the work of Government?

What is the difference of MP and PM?

What is the PM responsible for?

duty of the Opposition?

the agencies?

What are the traditional titles of ministers?

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

The Opposition has a duty to challenge government policies and to present an alternative program.

A change of Government involves a change in the civil servants staffing a department.

.

 

V. Talking point.

.

The Opposition has a duty to challenge government policies.

Prime Minister is a virtual ruler of the country.

The executive agencies are staffed by politically neutral civil servants.

JUDICIAL BRANCH

 

_________________________________________________________

Read the text and make the summary.

USTICE

. A large part of the civil law is not contained in statutes at all but made up of a mass of precedents, previous court decisions, interpreted in authoritative legal textbooks. By now, however, almost all actions for which a person may be punished are actions which are specifically forbidden by some statute.

abinet.

the crime is not serious, they often impose no punishment at all.

.

Apart from the ordinary courts of law there are many kinds of administrative tribunals to deal with special problems, such as claims about unfair dismissal or disputed rights to social security benefits or to compensation for industrial injury or illness. Lawyers may be involved in these, and in some cases there may be appeals to the ordinary courts of law.

of the other kind of lawyer — a barrister. The only function of barristers is to present cases in court.

of the everyday junior work until they are qualified.

can put the letters QC (Queen’s Counsel) after their names.

typically British.

considered necessary in order to ensure their independence from interference, by the state or any other party.

sentence’) on those found guilty of crimes.

 

_________________________

. Match the phrases in English with their Russian equivalents. Find the sentences with them in the text and read them out.

 

be guilty of a crime

a convicted person may appeal to the Court of Appeal

have the conviction quashed

their clients

hire a barrister

o act as the referee

nown as “pronouncing” sentence

claims about unfair dismissal

selected at random

a crown court

Justices of the Peace

or a fine

impose a punishment

magistrates’ courts

a provision for a maximum penalty

statutes, Acts of Parliament, and common law

a single system of law and courts

code

to be heard in a magistrate’s court

code

рассматриваться в мировом суде

 

. Give extensive answers.

?

What does the law as a whole consist of?

?

What kinds of courts are there?

What are magistrates?

How many people do juries consist of?

?

?

What kind of lawyer needs a university qualification?

What things are considered necessary to ensure judges’ independence from interference?

 

Correct the false ones.

criminal code.

The courts and lawyers have a strong tradition of independence from the government.

.

as Justices of the Peace (JPs), are trained lawyers.

Juries consist of twelve people selected at random from the list of voters.

.

clients’ cases in magistrates’ courts.

citors have to pass the Law Society exam.

on those found guilty of crimes.

The vast majority of barristers and most solicitors do in fact go to university, but they do not necessarily study law there.

 

V. Talking point.

:

The first thing to notice is that there is no civil code and no criminal code.

.

.

 

 

UNIT VII. LOCAL GOVERNMENT

.

GREAT BRITAIN

is carried out by democratically elected councils (local authorities) which deal with planning and housing, education, personal social services, police, fire brigades and many other services in their areas.

n dozen of Acts it is declared to mean the persons or bodies who give effect to the Acts in various areas.

Three-fifth of current expenditure is met by grants from the central Government and the rest by rents and other forms of income. Capital expenditure is financed mainly by borrowing.

).

The local councils are publicly elected by the people of the area which these councils represent.

 

___________________________________________________

. Match the phrases in English with their Russian equivalents. Find the sentences with them in the text and read them out.

 

 

local property tax

a third of their current expenditure

payment of social security benefits

issuing of passports and drivers’ licenses

freedom

rates

третья часть их текущих затрат

 

. Give extensive answers.

What bodies is the local government carried out by?

What issues does the local government deal with?

What gives powers to local authorities?

?

.

 

.

is carried out by non-elected councils (local authorities).

of the eleventh century the only effective government was the system of local government.

In Great Britain Federal Government deals with planning and housing, education, personal social services, police, fire brigades and many other services in their areas.

justices.

The expression “local authority” is declared to mean the persons or bodies who give effect to the Acts in various areas.

Local authorities are given their powers by Parliament and are not always free to govern local affairs in their own way.

tiers of local authorities.

There are the councils of counties, boroughs, urban and rural districts and parishes.

The local councils are publicly elected by the people of the area which these councils represent.

 

Talking point.

and give your arguments for and against.

All the local councils have the power to make by-laws.

Three-fifth of current expenditure is met by grants from the central Government.

make the system rather complicated.

POLITY

 

POLITICAL SYSTEM

 

.

OF THE USA

has the dual character of both Federal and State Government. The basic principle of all American government is the separation of the three branches: legislative, executive and judicial. Each branch of government holds a certain degree of power over the others, and all take part in the governmental process.

ely young age of 200 years old.

There are two main ideas which frame the structure of American government: that the leaders have been given power by the majority (implying that this power can also be taken away if the majority is dissatisfied) and that there is a limit to the amount of power these leaders have been given. Ideally, politicians are servants to the people of the nation, and laws are designed to protect the common good.

federal, state, and local government. The Federal government is the main government, for the whole US. State and local governments control education, highways, police, parks, health regulations and state programs and they also work with the federal government.

.

consists of a 100 member House of Senate with 2 senators from each state and a House of Representatives with 435 elected members, one for approximately every 500,000 people. Senators serve 6 year terms and Representatives serve 2 year terms. The legislative branch makes new laws and amends old ones.

. A bill may originate in either the House of Representatives or in the Senate. For a bill to become a law it must be voted on and passed by both the House and the Senate. If both the House and the Senate pass a law, it goes to the President who will either sign it or veto it.

have a lot of power over each other. A good example is the timber lobbyists. Timber is important for a states’ economy, however, current legislation about environmental control could damage the timber industry. Lobbyists want to protect the interests of their organization. There are lobbyists for cigarette companies, environmental protection agencies, and organizations to protect the rights of gun owners.

and Veterans Affairs. Each department has a head secretary who works also as a member of the president’s advisory board. The executive branch also handles the military and foreign policy decisions.

highest judicial organ (body) is the Supreme Court with a chief justice and eight other members. The president appoints the judges with the approval of the Senate and advice and consent of 94 district and special courts, at least one in each state. The Supreme Court rules on federal cases or certain civil cases involving persons in different states.

is responsible for investigating professional practices within the legislative branch. And major decisions from the president must be passed through Congress with a few exceptions. These functions serve as checks and balances to the power structures within the government.

was thought to be the most powerful branch was divided within itself.

 

________________

I. Match the phrases in English with their Russian equivalents. Find the sentences with them in the text and read them out.

 

 

basic law

fields of authority

dual character

advisory board

to win favor with

to assert oneself

current legislation

checks and balances

to be accountable to each other

текущее законодательство

 

. Give extensive answers.

?

Which document contains the basic rules of American political system?

What is the basic principle of all American government?

considered to be servants to the people?

?

What problems does the executive branch deal with?

In what proportion do the members of the Congress represent the people of the country?

Are the judges in the Supreme Court elected or appointed?

What is the procedure of making laws?

What is the essence of the system of checks and balances?

 

.

.

.

nt.

The State government is the main government, for the whole US.

The legislative branch handles the military and foreign policy decisions.

The executive branch is composed of 13 departments.

In the judicial branch, the national highest judicial organ is Supreme Court with a chief justice and eight other members.

it or veto it.

.

rk with the federal government.

 

V. Talking point.

and give your arguments for and against.

has the dual character of both Federal and State Government.

• The basic principle of all American government is the separation of the three branches.

consists of a 100 member House of Senate with 2 senators from each state and a House of Representatives with 435 elected members, one for approximately every 500,000 people.

Most recently the Ethics Committee is responsible for investigating professional practices within the legislative branch.

UNIT II. THE CONSTITUTION

 

Read the text and explain why the American Constitution may be called a good example of a written constitution.

THE CONSTITUTION

is the source of government authority and the fundamental law of the land. For over 200 years it has guided the evolution of governmental institutions and has provided the basis for political stability, individual freedom, economic growth and social progress.

. The Constitution set up a federal system with a strong central government. A federal system is one in which power is shared between a central authority and its constituent parts (states), with some rights reserved to each.

(education, taxes and finance, internal communications, etc.). The powers which were given to the Federal Government are those dealing with national defence, foreign policy, the control of international trade, etc.

Under the Constitution power was further divided among the three branches of the national government: legislative (the Congress), executive (the President) and judicial (the Supreme Court). Each was given its own authority.

These three powers established a so-called system of the checks and balances. This system gives each branch the means to restrain the other two. For example, the President has the power to veto acts passed by Congress, but the Congress may override the veto by a two-thirds majority. But the Supreme Court has the power to declare Acts of Congress (or of any State legislature) or the actions of a President to be illegal (or unconstitutional) if they are in conflict with the Constitution.

The Constitution provided the election of a national leader, or president. It provided also that federal laws would be made only by a Congress consisting of representatives elected by the people. The Constitution set up a national court system headed by a Supreme Court. This fundamental document provided the clearest example of a practical separation of the three principal branches of power.

ver the past 200 years 26 amendments have been adopted, but the basic document, the Constitution itself, has not been changed.

But when the Constitution was first proposed and adopted, there was widespread dissatisfaction of the American people, because it did not contain guarantees of certain basic freedoms and individual rights. It also recognized slavery and did not establish universal suffrage.

No member of the Government (the executive branch) with the exception of the Vice President (who presides over the Senate) may also be a member of Congress.

The Congress is empowered by the Constitution to remove government officials, including the President, from office, only by an impeachment process. Impeachment is a charge of misconduct brought against a government official or President by a legislative body.

. As a rule they include the preamble, the Bill of Rights, as well as provisions dealing with local interests: the division of powers, suffrage and elections, taxes and finance, education, etc.

 

____________________________

. Match the phrases in English with their Russian equivalents. Find the sentences with them in the text and read them out.

 

 

 

elatively brief document

undamental law of the land

o guide the evolution

well-defined powers

idespread dissatisfaction

niversal suffrage

nreasonable search, arrest and seizure

eaceful assembly

from office

сеобщее избирательное право

 

. Give extensive answers.

How a constitution may be defined?

adopted?

What official body adopted the Constitution?

What governmental system was set up by the Constitution?

In what way were the powers shared by the federal and state governments after the War of Independence?

What is the essence of the checks and balances system?

Why has it become necessary to set up the procedure of adding amendments to the constitution?

satisfied with the basic text of the Constitution?

What document has received the name “Bill of Rights”?

What liberties were granted by the “Bill of Rights” and other amendments?

 

Correct the false ones.

onstitution may be defined as the system or body of fundamental principles according to which a nation or state is constituted and governed.

adopted in 1787.

.

The Constitution set up a federal system with a strong central government.

When the Constitution was first proposed and adopted, there was widespread dissatisfaction of the American people.

Over the past 200 years 26 amendments have been adopted and the Constitution has been changed.

.

.

The President may or may not be a member of the political party with a majority in Congress.

The system of checks and balances gives each branch the means to restrain the other two.

Impeachment is a charge of misconduct brought against a government official or President by a legislative body.

state has its own Constitution.

 

 

V. Talking point.

explain it.

“because I expect no better and because I am not sure that it is not the best.”

“There are several parts of this Constitution which I do not at present approve, but I am not sure I shall never approve them.”

Later asked what kind of government the delegates of Convention had decided on, Founding Father Benjamin Franklin replied, “a republic, if you can keep it.”

 

THE POLITICAL PARTIES

 

g_________________________________________________________

THE POLITICAL PARTIES

Congress, they have great power to decide what kinds of laws will be passed. With few exceptions, presidents tend to appoint members of their party to governmental positions.

Political parties are the basis of the American political system. They are in fact important institutions in American democratic life. The Constitution does not mention parties or make any provision for them. Despite this, parties began to form shortly after the Constitution was ratified (1789) and they proved to be effective in the American political system.

makes use of a two-party system that has remained practically unchanged throughout the nation’s history, even though rival national parties have appeared and disappeared from the political scene.

has two major political parties. One is the Democratic Party, whose origins go back to the nation’s third president, Thomas Jefferson and which formed before 1800. The other is the Republican Party, which was formed in the 1850s, by people in the states of the North and West, such as Abraham Lincoln, who wanted the government to prevent the expansion of slavery into new states then being admitted to the union.

they do not have cards and do not pay membership dues. There are no official formalities for admission. Any voter during elections may become a Republican or a Democrat by a simple declaration, that he is a member of this or that party.

Americans do not have to join a political party in order to vote or to be a candidate for a public office. However, running for office without the money, which can be provided by a party, is difficult. Many voters become members of a party because they feel strongly about the party aims or want a voice in selecting its candidates.

or candidates.

, which ensures that those who are retired or disabled receive monthly payments from the government. Labour unions also received government support.

s, everyone is hurt. They place more emphasis on private enterprise and often accuse the Democrats of making the government too expensive. For that reason, Americans tend to think of the Republican Party as more conservative.

Congress, there are both Democrats and Republicans who do not vote the way their party leaders suggest.

besides the two major parties. None of these smaller parties has enough popular support to win a presidential election. But some of them are very strong in certain cities and states. They can have their own state or city candidates elected, or can determine which major party wins by supporting one or the other.

Congress and the presidency, the Republican and Democratic parties struggle for public office. The selection of these officials is a two-stage process, first, to win the party nomination, and second, to defeat the opposing party’s candidate in the general election. Persons elected to office exercise the power to make and execute laws as representatives of the people.

 

 

 

___________________________________________________

I. Match the phrases in English with their Russian equivalents. Find the sentences with them in the text and read them out.

 

 

the governing of the country

share a set of ideas

to prevent the expansion of slavery

rival national parties

rarely formal

do not have cards

do not pay membership dues

for a public office

Labour unions

are not registered

place more emphasis

too costly to the taxpayers

state governorships

nomination

power

force another person to vote

unemployed

the Social Security program

разделяют ряд идей

 

. Give extensive answers.

How the political parties may be defined?

?

Why did the Constitution make no provision for political parties?

What is the nature of a two-party system?

?

Why is party membership described as rarely formal?

party?

How can you describe the main pursuits of the Democratic Party?

What kind of organization is the Republican Party?

What is the role and influence of smaller political parties?

 

.

The authors of the Constitution believed that their government would work well with the help of the parties.

for a public office.

Many voters become members of a party because they feel strongly about the party aims or want a voice in selecting its candidates.

.

Some of the smaller parties have enough popular support to win a presidential election.

Persons elected to office exercise the power to make and execute laws as representatives of the people.

 

IV. Talking point.

:

?

American parties have clear political platforms?

What is informal party membership? Are you in favour of it or not?

 

. LEGISLATIVE BRANCH

 

.

THE CONGRESS

The authors of the Constitution expected that the legislature (the Congress) would be the strongest branch of the new government. Though the role of the President and the executive branch of power has become too great today, the Congress still plays a very important part in the country’s representative government.

therefore its size is not mentioned in the Constitution.

for at least nine years, and a resident of the state from which he or she is elected. To become a member of the House of Representatives a person must be at least 25, a citizen for seven years, and a resident of the state which he represents.

alone has 45.

Members of the House of Representatives are elected for two years. But in practice most members are reelected several times, and the House, like the Senate, may rely on a group of experienced legislators.

D.C.

the Vice President in the line of presidential succession.

are always members of the political party which has the majority in each House.

ure, commerce and other fields.

The Congress is the supreme legislative organ. The Senate and the House of Representatives have equal constitutional rights. Each House has the power to introduce bills on any subject. Important bills may be suggested by the President or other executive officials. After introduction all bills are sent to certain committees. When a committee is in favour of a bill, it is sent to the Congress for open debate. When the debate is over, members vote to approve the bill or to defeat it.

law, an Act of Congress. The bills, proposed by the White House or the Cabinet, usually pass all stages without any difficulty.

­gress has great investigative power. Members of the government can be called to a Congress committee to account for their administrative work.

he may be a President) is found guilty he is removed from public office.

 

____________________________

. Match the phrases in English with their Russian equivalents. Find the sentences with them in the text and read them out.

 

 

s

o be composed of

egardless of population

egislative experience

residential succession

ro tempore

o account for work

o maintain contacts

o increase in the amount of work

o be found guilty

поддерживать контакты

 

. Give extensive answers.

What is the structure of the Congress?

Where is the residence of the Congress situated?

How many members does the Congress consist of?

?

How often are the elections to the Congress held?

What are the duties of the standing committees in the Congress?

Who governs the House of Representatives’ sittings?

represented in the Congress?

How does a bill pass the Congress in order to become a law?

In what way does the Congress control the government?

 

.

The Congress is the supreme legislative organ.

D.C.

The Congress consists of two Houses.

The Senate is composed of two members from each state.

To be elected to the Senate a person must be at least 25 years of age.

To be elected to the House of Representatives a person must be at least 30 years of age.

The Senators are elected for a term of 4 years.

Two Senators from the same state never finish their terms at the same time.

Members of the House of Representatives are elected for six years.

The presiding officer of the House of Representatives is the Speaker.

The executive work of Congress is done mostly in standing committees.

The President has the right to veto the bill, passed by Congress.

Only the Congress has the power to declare war against a foreign nation.

 

IV. Talking point.

with the British Parliament.

;

;

etc.

 

V. EXECUTIVE BRANCH

_________________________________________________________

Read the text and say if the presidential power is limited in the USA.

PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS

D.C.

Constitutional qualifications for the Presidency are relatively simple: the President must be at least 35 years old, a resident of the country for at least 14 years and a national born citizen.

two terms. Franklin D. Roosevelt had been the only President to be elected four times (the first time in 1933).

the Vice President is absent).

. The presidential election is technically an election of presidential electors, not of a President directly. The people of each state do not vote directly for the President. They elect as many electors as this state has Senators and Representatives in the Congress. These electors are selected exclusively by the corresponding party machines. The candidate with the highest number of votes in each state wins all the electoral votes of the state.

compose what is known as the Electoral College, though it never meets as a body. Instead the electors gather in the state capitals shortly after the election and cast their votes for the candidate with the largest number of popular votes in their respective states. To be elected President, a candidate for the Presidency must receive 270 votes.

would be given one vote only.

Candidates for the Presidency are chosen by political parties several months before the presidential election, which is held every four years (every leap year) on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November.

. The words of the oath are provided by the Constitution:

.

The President has the authority to appoint the heads of all executive departments and agencies, together with hundreds of other high-ranking officials, including judges, from the district court level to the US Supreme Court. Each appointment must be approved by the Senate.

make shorter prison sentences and reduce fines.

Under the Constitution the President is responsible for foreign relations with other nations. With the Secretary of State, the President manages all official contacts with foreign governments, concludes treaties with other countries. Such treaties must be approved by a two-thirds vote of the Senate.

.

In addition to the executive departments, there are over fifty agencies in the Federal Government, the heads of which are directly responsible to the President. Each executive agency has certain duties and responsibilities.

.

 

____________________________

I. Match the phrases in English with their Russian equivalents. Find the sentences with them in the text and read them out.

 

 

 

o grant a pardon

ight of succession

Chief Executive

of office

ualification

corresponding party machine

high-ranking officials

mendment to the Constitution

o cast a vote

ublic opinion

лава исполнительной власти

 

Give extensive answers.

government does the president represent?

Where is the President’s office situated?

?

ow long can the longest possible term of presidency last?

What are the Vice President’s duties under the Constitution?

direct?

What role do the political parties play in the course of Presidential elections?

When does the President officially begin to carry out his duties?

In what way does the President influence the legislative and the judicial branches of government?

the structure and the functions of the National Security Council?

 

.

.

To be elected President a person must be at least 30 years old and a resident of the country for at least 14 years.

Candidates for the Presidency are chosen by the Vice President.

e electoral votes of the state.

To be elected President, a candidate for the Presidency must receive 450 votes.

The Presidential election is held every leap year.

The President is elected to a four–year term.

The presidential term of four years begins on January 20.

.

.

In addition to the executive departments, there are over 60 executive agencies in the Federal Government.

.

 

. Talking point.

issues.

The members of Big Four and their responsibilities.

.

The National Security Council mission.

 

. JUDICIAL BRANCH

 

court system.

THE COURT SYSTEM

: the Supreme Court, 11 Courts of Appeals and 95 district courts. The Congress has the authority to create and abolish federal courts, as well as to determine the number of judges in the federal judicial system. However, the Congress cannot abolish the Supreme Court.

All the courts are independent. The federal judges are appointed by the President for life, in practice, until they die, retire or resign. They can be removed from office only for misconduct and after trial in the Congress.

, maritime cases, cases dealing with foreign citizens or governments and cases arising between states. Usually federal courts do not hear cases arising out of the laws of individual states.

has the most complex judicial system in the world.

The federal and state courts have the power to declare legislative acts unconstitutional, that is in violation of the Constitution. By Constitution the courts have the power to hear and decide the two classes of cases — criminal and civil.

, D.C

The Supreme Court is the highest court in the country and the head of the judicial branch of the US Government. It consists of a Chief Justice and eight associate Justices. The Court meets on the first Monday of October each year and continues its session until June.

One of the most important duties of the Supreme Court Justices is to decide whether laws passed by the Congress agree with the Constitution. The Justices do this by interpreting and explaining the laws of Congress and the provisions of the Constitution. If the Supreme Court decides that the Constitution does not give Congress the power to pass a certain law, the Court will declare that law to be unconstitutional. Such a law will never come into force.

Most of the cases heard by the Supreme Court are on appeal from lower federal courts. The number of cases decided at an annual session is about 150.

Decisions of the Court are taken by a simple majority. The legal quorum of Justices, participating in the decision, is six (out of nine).

is divided into 11 separate regions, each of them being served by a court of appeals. The courts of appeals were established to hear most of the appeals growing out of district court actions. Only the Supreme Court reviews the decisions of the appeals courts.

Below the courts of appeals are the district courts. The Congress fixes the borders of the districts according to the population, size and volume of work.

Each of the district courts has from one to twenty-seven judges, depending on the volume of cases. Sometimes one judge serves two or more districts. A small state may itself constitute a district. District judges must live in the district, or one of the districts, for which they are appointed. Court is usually held at regular intervals in various cities within each district.

Most cases start in district courts. Cases begun in state courts are occasionally transferred to them. Almost all accused of committing federal crimes are tried in the district courts.

The Constitution gives Congress the authority to establish other courts and to increase or decrease their number, as the need may arise. In addition to the federal courts of general jurisdiction, it has been necessary from time to time to set up courts for special purposes. Judges in these courts like in other federal courts are appointed for life terms by the President.

One of the most important of these special courts is the Court of Claims. It deals with monetary claims against the Federal Government. Usually claims are for unpaid salary, property taken for public use, contractual obligations, and personal injuries for which the Federal Government is allegedly responsible.

, which has exclusive jurisdiction over cases, connected with taxes or quotas on imported goods.

 

 

 

 

____________________________

. Match the phrases in English with their Russian equivalents. Find the sentences with them in the text and read them out.

 

 

 

 

inferior courts

to create and abolish

office

arising out of the Constitution

in violation of the Constitution

Justice

come into force

cases on appeal

review the decisions of courts

accused of committing crimes

are tried in the courts

deals with monetary claims

exclusive jurisdiction

federal courts

over cases

аппеляцию

 

Give extensive answers.

represented by?

?

What are the powers of federal and state courts?

How long can a federal judge hold office?

What is the highest court of the country?

meet?

When is the Supreme Court in session?

What is one of the most important duties of the Supreme Court?

chief function of the Appeals Courts?

What is the role of the district courts?

?

 

e ones.

.

The Congress has the authority to create and abolish federal courts, as well as to determine the number of judges in the federal judicial system.

: the Supreme Court, 11 Courts of Appeals and 95 district courts.

die, retire or resign.

ssociate Justices.

Usually federal courts hear cases arising out of the laws of individual states.

Most of the cases heard by the Supreme Court are on appeal from lower federal courts.

Each state has at least two distinct courts.

Usually claims are for unpaid salary, property taken for public use, contractual obligations, and personal injuries for which the Federal Government is allegedly responsible.

, which has exclusive jurisdiction over cases, connected with monetary problems.

 

V. Talking point.

iscuss the following topics:

the Constitution and the third branch of power;

the Supreme Court and its prerogatives;

the role of the Court of Claims.

 

THE STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT

 

_________________________________________________________

.

THE STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT

. Next come still smaller units: county, city, town and village governments. The federal system was the last step in a long evolutionary process.

Each of the fifty states has a constitution, which has a similar structure with that of the Federal Constitution. The central place in the state constitution is occupied by the questions of forming the spheres of activity and the division of power: legislative, executive and judicial, like in the Federal Government.

which has a single-house legislative body). The upper house is usually called the Senate and the lower house the House of Representatives, House of Delegates or the General Assembly. In most states senators serve four-year terms, and members of the lower house serve two-year terms. The judicial power of each state is headed by the State Supreme Court.

.

The county is a subdivision of the state, usually containing two or more towns and several villages. In most counties, one town or city is the county seat where the government offices are located and where the board of commissioners or supervisors meets. In small counties, boards are elected as a whole. In the larger ones, supervisors represent separate districts or townships. The board levies taxes, fixes the salaries of county employees, supervises elections, builds and maintains highways and bridges, and administers national, state and county welfare programmes.

The counties maintain public order through the sheriff and his deputies. The sheriff is the chief law enforcement officer of the county. He is also officer of the court: he serves papers, enforces orders and maintains the jail. The sheriff’s deputy is appointed by the sheriff. He assists the sheriff in law enforcement and in some states may act in place of the sheriff.

.

: the mayor-council, the commission and the city manager.

, and until the beginning of this century was used by almost all American cities. Its structure consists of an elected mayor as chief of the executive branch, and an elected council forming the legislative branch. The mayor appoints heads of city departments and other officials, sometimes with the approval of the council. He has the right of veto and is responsible for preparing the city’s budget. The council passes the laws of the city, sets the tax rate on property and is responsible for the city’s purse.

. This type of city government combines both legislative and executive functions in one group of officials, usually three or more in number, who are elected. Each commissioner supervises the work of one or more city departments. One is named chairman of the body and is often called the mayor, although his power is equal to that of his fellow commissioners.

is a response to the increasing complexity of urban problems, which require high management experience not often possessed by elected officials. That is why it has been decided to entrust most of the executive powers, including law enforcement and provision of services, to a highly trained and experienced professional city manager.

Under this type of city government, a small, elected council carries on the city economic and social policy, but hires a paid administrator, also called a city manager, to enforce its decisions. The manager is in charge of the city budget and supervises most of the departments. The manager’s term of office is not fixed: he serves as long as the council is satisfied with his work.

 

____________________________

. Match the phrases in English with their Russian equivalents. Find the sentences with them in the text and read them out.

 

 

code

by popular vote

ounty seat

evy taxes

ix the salaries

erve the needs

n many respects

City’s purse

increasing complexity

powers

озрастающая сложность

 

Give extensive answers.

What document describes the system of the American government?

What problems are under the authority of the local government?

In what respects does the local governmental system mirror the federal one?

is the chief executive of the state? How is he elected?

Can the state legislature contradict the federal one? Why?

What are the smallest federal subdivisions?

What officials represent the county governments?

?

Why is the city managing of special importance in modern society?

Why has it become necessary to draw professionals into the city government?

 

.

.

s.

The central place in the state constitution prescribes the questions of forming the spheres of activity and division of power: legislative, executive and judicial.

.

.

deral authority should prevail.

f local government is the town.

The mayor has the right of veto and is responsible for the city’s budget.

.

 

V. Talking point.

. Make use of the following questions:

What are the federal units in both countries?

federalism be compared? In what way?

What affairs do local governments deal with?

countries differ in the system of city managing?

 

PART III

 

THE RF POLITY

 

POLITICAL SYSTEM

 

____________________________

.

THE RUSSIAN POLITICAL SYSTEM

is a democratic federal republic with the President as a head of the State.

does not belong to the executive or any other branch of power, although he has enough authority to influence governmental activities. According to the Constitution, the President ensures coordinated functioning and interaction of all the bodies of State power.

and determines the guidelines of the internal and foreign policies of the State.

while the State Duma is an elected chamber containing 450 deputies.

of the Russian Government with the consent of the State Duma.

.

, and appoints judges of other federal courts.

.

and the President shall be free to announce the resignation of the Government or to reject the decision of the State Duma. In case the State Duma again expresses no-confidence to the Government during three months, the President may accept this or dissolve the State Duma.

future.

.

 

____________________________

I. Match the phrases in English with their Russian equivalents. Find the sentences with them in the text and read them out.

 

 

 

 

ensures coordinated functioning and interaction

measures

the internal and foreign policies

with the consent of

is exercised by means of

considers cases on the correspondence

of

establishes certain provisions for

is empowered to dissolve

express no-confidence

accordance

соответствии

 

Give extensive answers.

?

What does the Russian Constitution provide?

belong to any branch of power?

What is the President’s main function?

?

represented by?

exercised?

put into effect?

consist of?

establish their own systems of regional government?

 

III. Read the sentences and say if they are true or false. Correct the false ones.

are to be interdependent.

is a head of the executive branch of power.

has authority to influence governmental activities.

.

of the Government and federal ministers with the consent of the State Duma.

and federal courts.

because of a tendency of several regions’ aspiration for integration.

.

IV. Talking point.

Provide the comparative analyses of:

UK

USA

in the RF

 

THE CONSTITUTION

 

.

Russian Federation

.

discussion.

with older democratic traditions.

and the transformation of the state into the rational organization of public authority for accomplishment of public functions within the framework of the law.

concluding and transitional provisions in the second one.

The major role in the constitutional regulation belongs to the fundamentals of the constitutional system stated in the first chapter. These are the basic principles and norms which define the form of government, the political regime and the legal base for relations between public institutions, society and citizens.

a democratic federal law-bound State with a republican form of government. It also recognizes human rights and freedoms as the supreme value and a subject of observance and protection by the State. The first chapter also sets the following fundamental constitutional principles:

shall be its multinational people.

shall ensure the integrity and inviolability of its territory.

development of man.

shall be exercised on the basis of its division into legislative, executive and judicial power. The bodies of legislative, executive and judicial power shall be independent.

local self-government shall be recognized and guaranteed.

or obligatory.

and the fundamentals of the organization and functioning of its public institutions: the President, the Federal Assembly, the Government, the judicial power and the local self-government.

 

______________________________

I. Match the phrases in English with their Russian equivalents. Find the sentences with them in the text and read them out.

 

 

a wholly new concept of statehood and society

to prepare the draft constitution

discussion

legally stated the recognition of

within the framework of the law

federal law-bound State

a subject of observance and protection

the bearer of sovereignty

the integrity and inviolability

diversity

a secular state

a transitional society

государство

 

Give extensive answers.

?

When was the Commission on Constitution reform created?

When was the Russian Constitution adopted?

What concepts has the Russian Constitution legally stated?

What parts does it consist of?

What does the preamble declare?

?

What are the basic principles and norms proclaimed in the first chapter of the Constitution?

What does the second chapter of the Constitution declare?

What anniversary did the Constitution survived in 2008?

 

III. Read the sentences and say if they are true or false. Correct the false ones.

The Constitution was adopted in June, 1990 by national referendum.

The Constitution has legally stated the recognition of democratic values and directions of social, political and economic development.

concluding and transitional provisions in the second one.

subordinate legal force in the country.

The fundamentals of the constitutional system include the basic principles and norms which define the form of government, the political regime and the legal base for relations between public institutions, society and citizens.

According to the Constitution Russia is a democratic federal law-bound State with a republican form of government.

The second chapter sets the fundamental constitutional principles and rights and liberties of humans and citizens.

the other chapters.

In 2008 the Constitution survived its fifteenth anniversary with 5 amendments.

 

IV. Talking point.

Discuss the following topics:

.

POLITICAL PARTIES

 

_____

.

 

RUSSIA

. The main highlights of its program include a powerful state, developing civil society and security for people living in the country.

are members of the Party. Possession of the constitutional majority in the State Duma means that United Russia is eligible not only to pass federal laws, by also to make changes to the Constitution if not vetoed by the Federation Council or the President.

of the CPSU. Being an opposition party CPRF has survived all Russian national election campaigns. The Communist party is considered the most important opposition party, but it is often said that in practice it is not an opposition anymore. Traditionally, the party electorate includes older people who lived under the Soviet system. The past few years have also seen a growth in its support of the leftist youth groups. But today the Communist Party has lost many votes.

and the CPRF. The party has a strong regional network.

Liberal Democrats promise to protect Russian people everywhere in the world, support Russian Army and Navy, and create a booming economy by supporting Russian industry and agriculture.

, has become the new party’s first chairman.

, which is considered more politically to the right and generally more in favour of cautious economic liberalism.

.

more parties would be optimal.

 

____________________________

I. Match the phrases in English with their Russian equivalents. Find the sentences with them in the text and read them out.

 

political arena

major parties

general elections

the elected chamber

labels itself centrist

real political power

political movements

a merger

led by

main highlights of its program

civil society

has been making great gains

the constitutional majority

is eligible

has consistently invoked

electorate

party

cautious economic liberalism

welfare

the multiparty system

polls

меренный экономический либерализм

 

Give extensive answers.

What is the current Russian political arena like?

? What are they?

and represented in the State Duma?

usually label itself?

program include?

led by?

program include?

What are the priorities of Fair Russia?

offer?

 

III. Read the sentences and say if they are true or false. Correct the false ones.

.

Very few of political parties are represented in the State Duma, and possess a real political power.

is a relatively new party in the Russian Parliament but has been making great gains in federal and local elections.

Being an opposition party CPRF hasn’t survived all Russian national election campaigns.

Traditionally, CPRF electorate includes younger people who didn’t live under the Soviet system.

The LDPR describes itself as an ultranationalist party.

is more in favour of cautious economic liberalism.

The LDPR and Fair Russia offer alternative strategies for democratic reforms that would lead to increased living standards and welfare.

educated people supporting democratic ideas.

Russians oppose the multiparty system.

 

IV. Talking point.

Discuss the following topics:

The diverse political arena: Pros and Cons.

.

Major political parties and their programs.

 

UNIT IV. THE PRESIDENCY

 

g_________________________________________________________

.

RUSSIAN FEDERATION

been highly influenced by various national and historical features, such as stable tradition of strong individual power vested in tsars, emperors and general secretaries in different periods of Russian history.

his resignation and announced his successor, Vladimir Putin.

significantly changed with the adoption of the RF Constitution (1993) which proclaimed the President the head of the State.

enough authority to influence governmental activities.

within the country and in international relations.

years on the basis of universal, equal, direct suffrage by secret ballot. One and the same person may not be elected President of Russia for more than two terms running.

takes the following oath of loyalty to the people:

.

, appoints all the Federal Ministers and decides on their resignation.

, and appoints judges of other federal courts.

.

the State Duma in case it rejects three times the candidates for the post of the Chairman of the Government.

may cease to exercise the powers short of the term in case of his resignation, stable inability to exercise the powers vested in him because of health reasons or in case of impeachment.

by the State Duma and confirmed by the conclusion of the Supreme Court on the presence of the elements of crime in the actions of the President and by the conclusion of the Constitution Court confirming that the rules of advancing the charges were observed.

 

___________

I. Match the phrases in English with their Russian equivalents. Find the sentences with them in the text and read them out.

 

 

 

 

crime

the all-Russian referendum

to influence governmental activities

determines the guidelines

with a permanent residence record

universal, equal, direct suffrage

oath of loyalty to the people

in a solemn atmosphere

possesses vast authority in government

decides on their resignation

power

short of the term

the charges of high treason

всероссийский референдум

 

Give extensive answers.

?

Who was the first president of the RSFSR?

at present time?

What functions does the Russian president perform?

Does he belong to any of three branches of power?

?

How does the president start his office?

possess?

Why may the president be impeached?

 

III. Read the sentences and say if they are true or false. Correct the false ones.

The institution of presidency itself is traditional for our country.

The first President of Russia was Vladimir Putin.

According to the RF Constitution (1993) the President is the head of the State.

The President of Russia does not belong to any branch of power.

but he has no authority to influence governmental activities.

is not longer than 8 years.

.

The President of Russia possesses vast authority in the relations with the legislative, executive, and judicial branches.

powers short of the term in case of impeachment but not of health reasons.

.

 

IV. Talking point.

Discuss the following topics:

and the RF.

The Russian President and the British Prime Minister authorities.

.

 

UNIT V. LOCAL SELF-GOVERNMENT

 

.

RUSSIA

ettlements and rural districts.

the researchers and administration experts pay significant attention to domestic and foreign experience of municipal bodies.

total lack of independence at a local level.

independently.

the world standards.

.

.

Local governments may also be vested with certain state powers and receive the necessary material and financial resources for their implementation.

ly.

 

__________________

I. Match the phrases in English with their Russian equivalents. Find the sentences with them in the text and read them out.

 

 

overlapping jurisdictions

pay significant attention

foreign experience

dues

rigid centralization

the European Charter on Local Self-Government

correspond to the world standards

branches pursuing the same agenda

have managed to achieve

practices taken from abroad

местные налоги и пошлины

 

Give extensive answers.

?

nowadays?

develop historically?

What status of local government has the Russian Constitution of 1993 established?

?

in Russian local government?

?

solve?

?

 

III. Read the sentences and say if they are true or false. Correct the false ones.

across the country including cities, towns, rural settlements and rural districts.

.

independently.

national and provincial parliamentary systems in which the executive and legislative branches are interdependent.

.

”.

.

certain state powers.

 

IV. Talking point.

Discuss the following topics:

: advantages and disadvantages.

.

on the local level: myth or reality.

 

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

 

 

, 2001.

Барановский Л. С. Здравствуй, Америка! / Л. С. Барановский, Д. Д. Козикис. – Мн. : Выш. шк., 1997.

, 2007.

Ганц Н. В. Учебный курс английского языка для административного управления : в 3 ч. / Н. В. Ганц, Л. Ф. Лихоманова. – СПб.: Изд-во Северо-Западной академии государственной службы, 1998.

Голицынский Ю. Б. Великобритания / Ю. Б. Голицынский. – СПб. : КАРО, 2001.

Левашова В. А. Современная Великобритания : страна, государство, общество /В. А. Левашова : учеб. пособие. – М. : Инфра, 2001.

Нестерчук Г. В. США и американцы / Г. В. Нестерчук Г. В., В. М. Иванова. – Мн. : Выш. шк., 1998.

О Британии вкратце : кн. для чтения на английском языке. М. : Лист, 1999.

Сатинова В. Ф. Читаем и говорим о Британии и британцах / В. Ф. Сатинова. – Изд. 4-е, испр. – Мн.: Выш. шк., 1999.

Английский язык : учебник для студентов юридических вузов и факультетов / С. П. Хижняк, И. И. Ефимова, Т. В. Кирюшкина, В. В. Митрофанова. – Саратов, 2000.

, 1990.

Sharman E. Across Cultures / Elizabeth Sharman. – Longman, 2006.

, 2000.

, 1994.

http://Encarta.msn.com/artcenter_/browse.html

.

 

 

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